Glossary

Looking for rheumatic disease types, treatments, and associated rheumatology definitions? From abatacept to WOMAC, learn about common terms related to arthritis and rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. Looking for information about MACRA? See MACRA terms and definitions.

Chondrogenesis

Formation of cartilage.

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes, and wastes can build up in the body.

Churg-Strauss syndrome

Rare disease that involves inflammation of small blood vessels or vasculitis. Also known as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or allergic granulomatous angiitis. About 40% of people with Churg-Strauss syndrome test positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) in their blood. May cause allergic rhinitis and asthma, vasculitis, and an increased count of white blood cells (eosinophils). Other possible symptoms include fever, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, rapid weight loss, and skin rash. It usually is treated with glucocorticoids, although some people with severe disease may need an immunosuppressant drug as well.

Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)

The CDAI is a useful clinical composite score for following patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The CDAI is the sum of 4 outcome parameters: tender and swollen joint counts (28 joints assessed) and patient’s and physician’s global assessments of disease activity (on a 0–10-cm visual analog scale). Range of possible scores is 0–17. The CDAI is the same as the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), except that the SDAI includes the C-reactive protein level.

Clinical practice guidelines

Formal statement about a defined task or function in clinical practice, such as desirable diagnostic tests or the optimal treatment regimen for a specific diagnosis; generally based on the best available evidence.

Clinical trial

Controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other form of medical intervention.

Cognitive dysfunction

Also known as brain fog, the loss of intellectual functions such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning of sufficient severity to interfere with daily functioning. Patients with cognitive dysfunction have trouble with verbal recall, basic arithmetic, and concentration.

Cohort study

Using epidemiologic methods, such as a clinical trial, in which a cohort with a particular attribute is followed prospectively and compared for some outcome with another cohort not possessing the attribute.

Colchicine

An alkaloid obtained from Colchicum autumnale used in the treatment of chronic gout.

Collagen

Major protein of the white fibers of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone.

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