Glossary

Looking for rheumatic disease types, treatments, and associated rheumatology definitions? From abatacept to WOMAC, learn about common terms related to arthritis and rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. Looking for information about MACRA? See MACRA terms and definitions.


G

Glomerulonephritis

Renal disease characterized by diffuse inflammatory changes in glomeruli that are not the acute response to infection of the kidneys.

Glucocorticoid

Any steroid-like compound capable of significantly influencing intermediary metabolism such as promotion of hepatic glycogen deposition, and of exerting a clinically useful antiinflammatory effect.

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

The most common form of secondary osteoporosis. Fractures, which are often asymptomatic, may occur in as many as 30–50% of patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Vertebral fractures occur early after exposure to glucocorticoids, at a time when bone mineral density (BMD) declines rapidly. Fractures tend to occur at higher BMD levels than in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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Glucosamine

An amino sugar found in chitin, cell membranes, and mucopolysaccharides generally; used as a pharmaceutical aid.

Golimumab (Simponi)

Golimumab is an injectable synthetic (man-made) protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the body and blocks the effects of TNFα in patients within rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or ankylosing spondylitis. As a result, the inflammation caused by these diseases and its consequences is reduced.

Gout

Disorder of purine metabolism, occurring especially in men, characterized by a raised but variable blood uric acid level and severe recurrent acute arthritis of sudden onset resulting from deposition of crystals of sodium urate in connective tissues and articular cartilage.

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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s)

Disease occurring mainly in the fourth and fifth decades, characterized by necrotizing granulomas and ulceration of the upper respiratory tract, with purulent rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, and sometimes with otorrhea, hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltration and cavitation, and fever; underlying condition is a vasculitis affecting small vessels, and is possibly due to an immune disorder.

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Growth factor

Natural substance produced by the body (hormones) or obtained from food (vitamins, minerals) that promotes growth and development by directing cell maturation and differentiation and by mediating maintenance and repair of tissues.

Growth plate

Disc of cartilage between the metaphysis and the epiphysis of an immature long bone permitting growth in length.

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