Canakinumab (Ilaris) is an interleukin-1β (IL-1β) blocker, which works to suppress the production of an inflammatory protein in the body. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory protein released in states of infection and inflammation. Overproduction of IL-1β creates a state of systemic inflammation leading to symptoms such as fever, joint pain, and rashes. Canakinumab is a monoclonal antibody which binds to the IL-1β protein, thus preventing it from attaching to its cellular receptor. As a result, canakinumab stops the inflammatory response commonly seen in autoinflammatory disorders, such as in systemic juvenile inflammatory arthritis.
Canakinumab is approved by the FDA for the treatment of Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS, including Familial Cold Autoinflammatory Syndrome, Muckle-Wells, and Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID)), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS), Hyperimmunoglobulin D Syndrome (HIDS)/ Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD), Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), and Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (SJIA).
Canakinumab is a subcutaneous injection. Dosing schedules differ based on the disease, as listed as follows.
Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndrome
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Associated Periodic Syndrome
Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF)
Hyperimmunoglobulin D Syndrome (HIDS) / Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD)
Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (SJIA)
A documented allergy to canakinumab is an absolute contraindication to the drug. Side effects include nasopharyngitis, influenza, rhinitis, nausea, headache, upper respiratory infection, gastroenteritis, and vertigo. Injection site reactions are the most common adverse event and have been reported in greater than 10% of patients treated with canakinumab.
Since canakinumab suppresses your natural immune response, it can increase your risk of infection. Tell your doctor if you develop fevers or any signs or symptoms of an infection. If you experience any allergic symptoms to canakinumab, you should stop treatment and contact your doctor. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or planning on conceiving soon. You should discuss with your doctor before considering any live vaccinations, as live vaccines should be avoided while on this medication. You should discuss updating your vaccinations prior to starting this medication.
Updated December 2020 by Marcy Bolster, MD, and reviewed by the American College of Rheumatology Committee on Communications and Marketing.
This information is provided for general education only. Individuals should consult a qualified health care provider for professional medical advice, diagnosis and treatment of a medical or health condition.