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Bibliography of Criteria, Guidelines, and Health Status Assessments Used in Rheumatology: M-Q

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This resource is continually developed as additional references, links, and downloadable files become available for inclusion.

Note that the American College of Rheumatology is not the originator of many of these disease activity measures, indices, questionnaires, and criteria. Inclusion of a reference in this bibliography should not be construed as an endorsement by the ACR, except as indicated otherwise. This bibliography is not intended to be exhaustive; however, new references will be added from time to time.


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  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Extremities in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA):
    American College of Rheumatology Extremity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task Force. Extremity magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis: report of the American College of Rheumatology Extremity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task Force. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54:1034 - 47.
  • Mankin Scale for Scoring Cartilage Lesions in Osteoarthritis (OA):
    • Mankin Scale:
      Mankin HJ, Dorfman H, Lippiello L, Zarins A. Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. Correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1971;53:523–37.
    • Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) - Modified Mankin Score:
      Pritzker KP, Gay S, Jimenez SA, Ostergaard K, Pelletier JP, Revell PA, et al. Osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology: grading and staging. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006;14:13 - 29.
  • Mastery Scale:
    Pearlin L, Lieberman M, Menaghan E, Mullan J. The stress process. J Health Soc Behav 1981;22:337-56.
  • McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ):
    Melzack R. The McGill Pain Questionnaire: major properties and scoring methods. Pain 1975;1:277-99.
  • McMaster Health Index Questionnaire (MHQ):
    Chambers LW, MacDonald LA, Tugwell P, Buchanan WW, Kraag G. The McMaster Health Index Questionnaire as a measure of quality of life for patients with rheumatoid disease. J Rheumatol 1982;9:780-4.
  • Mental Health Inventory:
    Veit CT, Ware JE Jr. The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. J Consult Clin Psychol 1983;51:730–42.
  • Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA), Guillevin et al Recommendations for Diagnosis:
    Guillevin L, Durand-Gasselin B, Cevallos R, Gayraud M, Lhote F, Callard P, et al. Microscopic polyangiitis: clinical and laboratory findings in eighty-five patients. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:421-30.
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):
    Hathaway SR, McKinley JC. Manual for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. New York: Psychological Corporation; 1951, 1967, 1983.
    Hathaway SR, McKinley JC, Butcher JN, Dahlstrom WG, Graham JR, Tellegen A, et al. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2: manual for administration. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1989.
  • Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE):
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: 'Mini-Mental State': a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189-98.
  • Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD) criteria:
    Alarcon-Segovia D, Cardiel MH. Comparison between 3 diagnostic criteria for mixed connective tissue disease: study or 593 patients. J Rheumatol 1989;16:328-34
  • Moskowitz's Osteoarthritis Book:
    Moskowitz RW, Altman RD, Hochberg MC, Buckwalter JA, Goldberg VM, editors. Osteoarthritis: diagnosis and medical/surgical management. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
  • Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS) Disease Activity Score (DAS):
    Kuemmerle-Deschner JB, Tyrrell PN, Reess F, Kotter I, Lohse P, Girschick H, et al. Risk factors for severe Muckle-Wells syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 2010;62:3783 - 91.
  • Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale:
    Wallston KA, Wallston BS, DeVellis R. Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales. Health Educ Monogr 1978;6:161-70.
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders, Prognostic Factors in Short-Term Disability:
    Abasolo L, Carmona L, Lajas C, Candelas G, Blanco M, Loza E, et al. Prognostic factors in short-term disability due to musculoskeletal disorders. Arthritis Rheum 2008;59:489 - 96.
  • Musculoskeletal Symptoms, ACR Guidelines for Evaluating in Adults:
    American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Clinical Guidelines. Guidelines for the initial evaluation of the adult patient with acute musculoskeletal symptoms. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1 - 8.
  • Myopathies and Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM):
    Griggs RC, Askanas V, DiMauro S, Engel A, Karpati G, Mendell JR, et al. Inclusion body myositis and myopathies. Ann Neurol 1995;38:705–13.
  • Myositis, Adult and Juvenile, Preliminary Definitions of Improvement:
    Rider LG, Giannini EH, Brunner HI, Ruperto N, James-Newton L, Reed AM, et al, for the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group. International Consensus on preliminary definitions of improvement in adult and juvenile myositis. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:2281 - 2290.
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, World Health Organization (WHO) Criteria:
    Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, Flandrin G, Muller-Hermelink HK, Vardiman J, et al. World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: report of the Clinical Advisory Committee meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:3835 - 49.
  • Nottingham Health Profile:
    Hunt SM, McKenna SP. The Nottingham Health Profile: user's manual. Revised ed. Manchester (UK): Galen Research and Consultancy; 1991.
    Fitzpatrick R, Ziebland S, Jenkinson C, Mowat A, Mowat A. A generic health status instrument in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1992;31:87-90.
  • Osteoarthritis (OA):
    • ACR Criteria for OA:
      • OA of the Hand:
        Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D, Bloch D, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hand. Arthritis Rheum 1990;33:1601-10.
      • OA of the Hip:
        Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D, Bloch D, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum 1991;34:505-14.
      • OA of the Knee:
        Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D, Bole G, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1986;29:1039-49.
    • ACR Guidelines/Recommendations for Medical Management of OA:
      • OA of the Hip:
        Hochberg MC, Altman RD, Brandt KD, Clark BM, Dieppe PA, Griffin MR, et al. Guidelines for the medical management of osteoarthritis. Part I. Osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1535-40.
      • OA of the Knee:
        Hochberg MC, Altman RD, Brandt KD, Clark BM, Dieppe PA, Griffin MR, et al. Guidelines for the medical management of osteoarthritis. Part II. Osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1541-6.
      • OA of the Hip and Knee, 2000 Update:
        American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: 2000 update. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:1905-15.
      • 2012 Recommendations for Use of Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Therapies in OA of the Hand, Hip, and Knee:
        Hochberg MC, Altman RD, April KT, Benkhalti M, Guyatt G, McGowan J, et al. American College of Rheumatology 2012 recommendations for the use of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies in osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2012;64:465 - 74.
    • Grading Scales in OA:
      • Ankle OA Scale (see Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale)
      • Histology Changes in OA Cartilage (see Collins/McElligott Grading Scale)
      • Mankin Scale (see Mankin Scale for Scoring Cartilage Lesions in Osteoarthritis)
  • Osteonecrosis (ON), Koshino Staging (see Koshino Staging of Osteonecrosis Lesions on Radiographs)
  • Osteoporosis (OP):
    • ACR Treatment Guidelines/Recommendations for Glucocorticoid-Induced OP:
      • 1996 Guidelines:
        American College of Rheumatology Task Force on Osteoporosis Guidelines. Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1791–801.
      • 2001 Update:
        American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis. Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:1496-1503.
      • 2010 Update:
        Grossman JM, Gordon R, Ranganath VK, Deal C, Caplan L, Chen W, et al. American College of Rheumatology 2010 recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010;62:1515 - 26.
    • Indices and Assessments in OP:
      • Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire (OPAQ):
        Randell AG, Bhalerao N, Nguyen TV, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA, Silverman SL. Quality of life in osteoporosis: reliability, consistency and validity of the Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire. J Rheumatol 1998;25:1171–9.
      • Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO):
        Lips P, Cooper C, Agnusdei D, Caulin F, Egger P, Johnell O, et al. Quality of life as outcome in the treatment of osteoporosis: the development of a questionnaire for quality of life by the European Foundation for Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int 1997;7:36–8.
  • Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology:
    Maddison PJ, Isenberg DA, Woo P, Glass DN, editors. The Oxford textbook of rheumatology. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.
  • Pain-Related Self-Statements Scale (PRSS) and the Pain-Related Control Scale (PRCS):
    Flor H, Behle DJ, Birbaumer N. Assessment of pain-related cognitions in chronic pain patients. Behav Res Ther 1993;31:63 - 73.
  • Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) Pediatric Musculoskeletal Functional Health Questionnaire:
    Daltroy LH, Liang MH, Fossel AH, Goldberg MJ, and the Pediatric Outcomes Instrument Development Group. The POSNA pediatric musculoskeletal functional health questionnaire: report on reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. J Pediatr Orthop 1998;18:561-71.
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN), ACR Criteria (PAN criteria) (PAN criteria tree format):
    Lightfoot RW Jr, Michel BA, Bloch DA, Hunder GG, Zvaifler NJ, McShane DJ, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of polyarteritis nodosa. Arthritis Rheum 1990;33:1088-93.
  • Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) Criteria:
    • PMR Criteria:
      Jones JG, Hazleman BL. Prognosis and management of polymyalgia rheumatica. Ann Rheum Dis 1981;40:1–5.
      Chuang TY, Hunder GG, Ilstrup DM, Kurland LT. Polymyalgia rheumatica: a 10-year epidemiologic and clinical study. Ann Intern Med 1982;97:672 - 80.
    • European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2012 Provisional Criteria for PMR:
      Dasgupta B, Cimmino MA, Maradit Kremers H, Schmidt WA, Schirmer M, Salvarani C, et al. 2012 provisional classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: a European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology Collaborative Initiative. Arthritis Rheum 2012;64:943 - 54.
  • Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis (PM/DM) Criteria:
    • PM/DM Criteria:
      Bohan A, Peter JB. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 1975;292:344 - 7.
      Bohan A, Peter JB.  Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (second of two parts).  N Engl J Med 1975;292:403–7.
      Bohan A, Peter JB, Bowman RL, Pearson CM. A computer-assisted analysis of 153 patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1977;56:255-86.
    • International Consensus Criteria for Juvenile Dermatomyositis (DM):
      Brown VE, Pilkinton CA, Feldman BM, Davidson JE, on behalf of the Network for Juvenile Dermatomyositis, a working party of the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS). An international consensus survey of the diagnostic criteria for juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006;45:990 - 3.
  • Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement :
    Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gotzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:W65 - 94.
  • Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism:
    Favus MJ, editor. Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Society for Bone and Mineral Research; 2003.
  • Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases:
    Klippel JH, Stone JH, Crofford LJ, White PH, editors. Primer on the rheumatic diseases. 13th ed. Atlanta: Arthritis Foundation; 2008.
  • Profile of Mood States (POMS):
    McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF. EITS manual for the Profile of Mood States. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service; 1971.
  • Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA):
    Veale D, Rogers S, FitzGerald O. Classification of clinical subsets in psoriatic arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1994;33:133–8.
    Moll JM, Wright V. Psoriatic arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1973;3:55 - 78.
    • Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) Study Group Criteria for PsA:
      Taylor W, Gladman D, Helliwell P, Marchesoni A, Mease P, Mielants H, and the CASPAR Study Group. Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis: development of new criteria from a large international study. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54:2665 - 73.
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System for Peripheral PsA:
      McQueen F, Lassere M, Bird P, Haavardsholm EA, Peterfy C, Conaghan PG, et al. Developing a magnetic resonance imaging scoring system for peripheral psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2007;34:859 - 61.
    • PsA in Children:
      Southwood TR, Petty RE, Malleson PN, Delgado EA, Hunt DW, Wood B, et al. Psoriatic arthritis in children. Arthritis Rheum 1989;32:1007 - 13.
    • Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria (PsARC):
      Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Mejias E, Cannon GW, Weisman MH, Taylor T, et al. Comparison of sulfasalazine and placebo in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis: a Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:2013 - 20.
    • Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI):
      Fredriksson T, Pettersson U. Severe psoriasis--oral therapy with a new retinoid. Dermatologica 1978;157:238 - 44.
  • Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) Index:
    Dupuy HJ. The Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index. In: Wenger NK, Mattson ME, Furberg CD, Elinson J, editors. Assessment of quality of life in clinical trials of cardiovascular therapies. New York: Le Jacq; 1984. p. 170-83.
  • Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale:
    Kaplan RM, Bush JW, Berry CC. Health status: types of validity for an index of well-being. Health Serv Res 1976;11:478-507.
  • Quality Measures in Arthritis Care, Arthritis Foundation's Quality Indicator Set:
    MacLean CH, Saag KG, Solomon DH, Morton SC, Sampsel S, Klippel JH. Measuring quality in arthritis care: methods for developing the Arthritis Foundation's quality indicator set. Arthritis Rheum 2004;51:193 - 202.

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